Depending on individual factors and the severity of sleep deprivation, you’ll experience different symptoms.
There are 2 main types of test. First is a sleep deprivation reaction time test.
Second is the one below, which is based on a series of questions around your sleep experiences. It's simpler, faster, and gives you an instant indication of if you're sleep deprived.
One popular one that I’ve come across is from James Maas’, Power of Sleep. I’ve modernized and adapted the questions, and created a free online version that will only take a minute to fill out below.
This is a simple quiz with simple results.
If you answered “True” to 3 or more questions, you’re likely sleep deprived.
The more questions you answered “True” to, the more likely you are to be sleep deprived.
If you answered “True” to 2 or fewer questions, it’s still possible to be chronically sleep deprived, but its much less likely.
It is possible that you’ve had a few rough nights of sleep and that can still affect your cognition, but it depends on who you ask whether or not you're sleep deprived at that point.
Here’s a more guide on how to know if you are sleep deprived if you want more detail and a summary of the research on the topic.